Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disease that causes progressive deterioration of the macular cells, which is the name given to the central area of the retina, the one with the highest visual sensitivity and which provides detailed vision. AMD is the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 65, and its incidence increases along with life expectancy. The main risk factors for this disease include age, smoking, poor eating habits, high blood pressure, circulatory problems and genetic predisposition. As to the preventative measures, the most important are as follows: - Avoid smoking - Eat a diet rich in antioxidants and omega 3 fatty acids - Undergo eye examinations from the age of 50 You can perform a very simple "self-test" at home to detect abnormalities in vision which are compatible with this disease: look at the tile lines, railings with one eye covered and then the other. If the lines are not straight, you have to see an ophthalmologist, who will perform the so-called Amsler Grid test. There are two forms of AMD: - In the case of dry macular degeneration, yellowish residues or drusen are accumulated under the retina. It affects 80% of patients with AMD and shows a slow evolution with progressive vision loss (people who suffer from it do not realise at first). There is no treatment, although the supply of antioxidant vitamins manages to slow down its progress. - Wet macular degeneration involves the growth of a vascular membrane under the retina with the appearance of highly fragile abnormal blood vessels that bleed and leak fluid. It evolves rapidly, thus it is crucial to stop the disease as soon as possible. It is treated by injecting intraocular antiangiogenic drugs to inhibit the growth of new blood vessels.